1) state 3 differences between an Espalier and Cordon fruit tree.
1. Cordons (below) have one or more stems (typically one to three) with many fruiting spurs. An espalier has a central stem with tiers of horizontal, fruiting arms. (Typically 3 tiers.)
2. Cordons are usually trained angled to 45 degrees (oblique cordon). The main stem of an espalier is grown vertically.
3. Cordons are trained against a wall, fence or on wires between free-standing posts. Espaliers are typically grown on a training system of horizontal wires against a wall or fence.
4. Espalier are more ornamental than cordons, but require more space and maintenance.